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In contrast to Codacide Oil which is the only 100% natural plant based adjuvant with Organic status,
other adjuvants are synthetic and have undergone extensive chemical modification to obtain some
level of improved penetration and uptake of PPP.
This process often results in adjuvants that are as
toxic, or indeed more toxic than the PPPs they are used with.
Synthetically altered Mineral oils,
Organosilicons and Methylated Vegetable Oils (MSOs) have to invasively modify epicuticular
surfaces, for increased penetration, that often results in tissue damage and irreversible disruption to
the plants normal growing systems.
This can, for example, involve leaf wax solubilisation, cuticular
penetration and cell membrane disruption (Manthey and Nalewaja, 1990) and subsequently confers
a greater risk of phytotoxicity.
Where there is such localized damage to plant tissues, both uptake
and translocation may be adversely affected (Zabkiewicz, 2002).
Petroleum derived oil adjuvants, Organosilicons and Modified Seed Oils have a lower viscosity
(higher distillation temperature) than Codacide Oil and therefore longer perseverance and potential
for adverse physical affects and increased phytotoxicity.
It is not the physical presence of these oils,
but that they contain a range of unsaturated oil molecules (i.e polycyclic aromatics, carboxylic acid,
mercaptans), that
membranes, especially when photodegradation (UV breakdown) occurs and results in a readily
available pool of these phytotoxic compounds that are known to disrupt cell membranes
et al
., 2002).
et al
(2005) undertook comprehensive field and growth-chamber phytotoxicity experiments
with Codacide Oil on grape vines
(cultivar Mencia), at different rates (from 0.25% to 2% v/v).
statistically showed that Codacide Oil had no phytotoxic effects and had no effect in regard to shoot
length, number of leaves, number of internodes, and leaf area.
Net photosynthesis, stomatic
conductance and transpiration rate were analyzed using Infrared gas analyzer (ADC-LCA-3) equipped
with a Parkinson PLC-2 leaf chamber and statistical analysis of data was by one-way ANOVA,
followed by LSD tests.
The results showed that in comparison to water control, Codacide Oil had no
significant affect on the transpiration rate, stomatic conductivity and CO2 exchange of grape vines at
4 doses (0.25, 0.5, 1, 2%) and confirms that Codacide Oil does not invasively damage important foliar
membranes when presenting PPP deposits for effective uptake (Martin
et al
, 2005).
Codacide has been subjected to extensive selectivity and phytotoxicity studies and trails with a
comprehensive range of Plant Protection Products.
As summarized in Section VIII, over 100 trials
and studies have been conducted on Codacide alone and in combination with comprehensive range
herbicide, insecticide, fungicides and biologicals on a diverse range of crops throughout the world in
different climatic conditions with no adverse phytotoxicity.
Even at double rates (5 l/ha), for
instance, Codacide in addition to Quizalofop ethyl D (Targa D+) on sugar beet did not cause any
phytotoxicity or any reduction in root numbers, yield, sugar content or sugar yield (Biotek, 2004 a.).
Further, the Romanian Research Institute for Plant Protection (1997) analyzed phytotoxicty of
Codacide alone at double the recommended maximum rate (5 l/ha) on French beans, sunflower and
potatoes with no phytotoxicity recorded.
ii.) Codacide and Residues:
Codacide Oil, as a natural product is readily biodegradeable into carbon dioxide and water.
Oil’s main benefit is not increasing the amount of PPP deposits reaching target, but rather
the effective utilization of deposits once there.
Codacide assists minimalize the amount of PPP
deposit that remain unutilized on targets and also decreases the neutralization and/or denaturing of
their active ingredients.